Tag Archives: Mig-29

Polish Air Force MiG-29 Fulcrum Crashes Killing Pilot

A Polish Fulcrum crashed last night. Pilot found dead.

On Jul. 6, a Polish MiG-29 (reportedly: airframe bort no. 4103) has crashed in the village of Sakówko (Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship). The cause of the crash is unknown. The pilot ejected but did not survive. According to the Polish MoD the pilot was declared dead at 2.30 AM. The disaster happened at 1.57 AM. The Fulcrum belonged to the 22nd Airbase in Malbork.

According to the foreign media quoted by a former Polish jet pilot, Michał Fiszer, in his interview for the TVN24 outlet, the pilot belonged to the demo team showcasing the Fulcrums on air shows. The MoD release suggests that the late pilot was quite an experienced aviator, with 800 hours logged in the air and 500 of those were logged on the Fulcrum. The wreckage has been found around 500 meters from the residential buildings, while the body of the pilot was 200 meters from the wreck.

The circumstances are being investigated now by the Polish Committee for Investigation of National Aviation Accidents (Polish: Komisja Badania Wypadków Lotniczych Lotnictwa Państwowego; KBWLLP), which is the aircraft accident investigation agency of Poland regarding state and military aircraft. It is distinct from the State Commission on Aircraft Accidents Investigation, which investigates civil aviation accidents. The MoD asked the journalists not to comment and speculate on the disaster, until an official report is issued.

Notably, this is the second crash of a Polish Fulcrum in little more than 6 months. Last one happened occurred to the other Fulcrum base in Minsk Mazowiecki. In that case, however, according to ‘off the record’ sources, the pilot, who did not eject and landed the jet in the woods – survived.

Top image: composite photo showing, on the left, the wreckage of a Polish Air Force MiG-29 jet that crashed in the fields in the country’s north during a night training flight, near the town of Paslek, in Poland (credit: AP Photo/TVN24) and a Fulcrum at Radom Air Show last year (credit: Siminski).

Russia Rehearses Flyovers for Massive Moscow Victory Day Parade

First Parade Appearance for Sukhoi Su-57. Will MiG-31 Carry New Kinzhal Hypersonic Missile?

The Russian Aerospace Forces are well into rehearsals for what is arguably one of the most impressive conspicuous display of military might in the world: the annual Victory Day Parade in Red Square, Moscow to be held on Wednesday, May 9, 2018, at 1000 Hrs. local.

This year’s Victory Day parade commemorates the 73rd anniversary of the Russian victory over Germany in WWII, a war in which Russia lost an estimated 20+ million military and civilian lives, the greatest loss of life recorded by any nation in a war. Each year the parade begins with the emotional ringing of the historic clock on the Spasskaya Tower at the Kremlin in Moscow.

One of the most spectacular parts of the Victory Day Parade is the massive fly-over of Russian military aircraft. This year’s aerial parade review is scheduled to include 63 aircraft. The Russian flight demonstration teams The Russian Knights and Swifts will account for 15 of those aircraft. The Russian Knights will fly 6 new Sukhoi Su-30SM aircraft and the Swifts will pass over in their 9 Mikoyan MiG-29 aircraft. The two teams generally fly a large, single formation.

A gigantic Tupolev Tu-160 White Swan long range strategic bomber will also participate in the flyover and has been seen during rehearsals in formation with 4 Tupolev Tu-22M3s. Video from a rehearsal flyover appears to show one additional Tu-160 at the back of an Ilyushin Il-78.

This year will be the first year the relatively new Sukhoi Su-57 5th generation fighter will participate in the fly-over. Two Sukhoi Su-57s in a new pixelated air-superiority camouflage scheme will take part in the flyover.

Russia will display two new small RPVs in the 2018 Victory Parade. (Photo: Ragulin Vitaly/Livejournal)

It will also be interesting to see if any of the four MiG-31s (NATO codename “Foxhound”) will be carrying the new Kh-47M2 hypersonic long range cruise missile referred to as the “Kinzhal”. Russian social media has suggested that at least one of the MiG-31s in the aerial display will carry a Kinzhal in the flyover.

Given the involvement of the Russian Aerospace Forces in the Syrian conflict and recent successes in the campaign this year’s parade is expected to bring out a large crowd.

The weather forecast for Moscow on Wednesday, May 9, is favorable according to the U.S. weather website Accuweather.com, with a high temperature of 60 degrees Fahrenheit (15.5 Celsius) and clouds developing in the afternoon. The current forecast calls for a 21% chance of rain. Bad weather has played a role in the flyover demonstration before in the Victory Day Parade so conditions on May 9 are key to event being staged in its full version with both ground and aerial displays.

If you want to see the Victory Day Parade on Red Square you’ll need good connections. The coveted seats along Red Square are very difficult to come by. This area is generally reserved specifically for higher government employees, members of state govern ment, including President Vladimir Putin, military heroes and press.Internet resources suggest that, based on previous parade routes, one of the best places to see the ground portion of the parade (and presumably some of the flyovers too) is the Belorusskiy viaduct (Белорусский путепровод) on the Leningradskiy prospect.

An Mi-28 Havoc attack helicopter takes off for a rehearsal flyover as spectators watch. (Photo: Marina Lystseva/Livejournal)

Thank you to Mr. Vladimir Zinenko of the excellent Facebook page ВКС России for his assistance with this article.

Top image: two new Su-57s will fly over Red Square for the first time on Victory Day. (Photo: Chen Xiangyu/RussianPlanes.net)

Vipers, Fulcrums and Fitters: Tactical Exercise at Poznan-Krzesiny Airbase

We attended a tactical exercise of the Polish Air Force involving all fast jet types that remain in the service. F-16s and MiG-29s were tasked with providing fighter escort for the Su-22 attack aircraft.

On Mar. 13 we visited Poznan-Krzesiny airbase where Polish Air Force fast jets were taking part in a tactical exercise. As Polska Zbrojna reports, the operation involved both 1st and 2nd Tactical Aviation Wings of the Polish Air Force.

Noteworthy, what’s unique about the operation in question, is the fact that the said exercise involved the Su-22s and MiG-29s operating from the Poznan-Krzesiny airbase. Usually such operations see the pilots operating from their homebase which made it possible to integrate the planning and briefing processes, which could be considered a simulated deployment of all assets to some undefined operational theatre.

One of F-16 Fighting Falcon Block 52+ of the Polish Air Force taking off.

Not only did the operation cover fighter-escort capabilities, as the pilots also conducted CAS operations and scenarios, attacking the simulated targets around the Polish military ranges. The ground attack portion involved the Fitters, with Fulcrums and Vipers acting as the escort. Some of the jets simulated the adversary, in an aggressor role. Notably, the Fitters, to prolong their playtime probably, were carrying 4 external fuel tanks each.

Su-22 close up. The Fitters flew in the attack role.

Polish Viper thundering on take off from Poznan.

In order to extend their endurance, the Su-22s flew with four external fuel tanks.

Meanwhile, Vipers were taking off in waves, 4 aircraft per each wave.

Polska Zbrojna outlet notes that the operation is a part of preparation before the NATO Tiger Meet exercise planned to happen in May. The Aviationist is planning to attend this annual meeting of the NATO Tiger squadrons, and provide you with a report from the operation.

Polish MiG-29 Fulcrum.

Black Su-22 Fitter (305)

F-16D on the go. The Vipers escorted the Soviet-era Su-22 and MiG-29 attack planes.

All Images: Jacek Siminski

Many thanks go to Bartosz Torbicki and Sebastian Walczak, for taking care of logistics and formalities related to the visit at the base.

Polish Air Force’s 100th Anniversary – Part II: Kościuszko Squadron: American Aviators in the Polish-Soviet War

In the premiere episode covering the history of the Polish Air Force we made the readers acquainted with the Polish Air Force’s “Checkerboard”. Today we will tell you a story of one of the best known symbols associated with the Polish Air Force squadrons abroad – the “Scythes”. And the associated story of the American aviators who fought in Poland.

Never did the Poles come to terms with the fact that they lost their identity, following the loss of independence when back in 1795 Germany, Russia and Austria had partitioned their weaker neighbour. Throughout the period of partitions numerous political attempts and uprisings were organized to regain the Polish freedom. Only after WWI came to an end did circumstances emerge in which a political approval was obtained to resurrect the Republic of Poland. The Polish patriots involved in the unsuccessful attempts were often persecuted (exiled deep into Russia or Siberia) or forced to emigrate. Paradoxically, the above made it possible for the Poles to make contributions to science or culture (Maria Skłodowska-Curie, Frederic Chopin) and to support other nations in their struggle to regain freedom. Tadeusz Kościuszko and Kazimierz Pułaski were the best known of the group because they made significant contributions to the struggle undertaken by the Americans, driven towards gaining of the independence of the USA.

For Your Freedom…

Kościuszko, who was a talented officer educated in Poland and abroad, considering the impossibility of serving for Poland decided to help the Americans. Once he found out that the North American colonies stood up to the British to gain independence and sovereignty, he moved to North America.

Tadeusz Kościuszko. (Image Credit – Wikimedia)

As a military engineer and architect he utilized his expertise building fortifications. His efforts and ambitions did not go unnoticed by the top commanders. To express their gratitude, the Americans let Kościuszko work on fortification of West Point by the Hudson river. Then, he returned to Europe as a general. He used the financial award he received from the Congress to buy freedom to slaves and educate them. Furthermore, he decided within his testament that Thomas Jefferson would be the person who would manage the Kościuszko’s property after he passed away.

After his return to Europe he led an unsuccessful national uprising against Russia, as a result of which Poland disappeared from the European maps for almost a century. The aforesaid uprising involved numerous countrymen of the Krakow area, who used scythes placed vertically on the sticks as their weapons. The scythes were to become a basis for the most recognizable symbols of one of the Polish Air Force’s squadrons later on.

Kazimierz (Casimir) Pułaski is another Pole who made significant contributions to the American struggle for independence. Before he emigrated to North America, he was involved in an armed action undertaken by the Polish noblemen against Russia and Stanisław August Poniatowski (Stanisław II Augustus), the King at the time, who endorsed the Russian effort. After the Confederation lost the battle, Pułaski was sentenced to death for his attempt to kidnap the King. He was forced to become an exile. Living like a nomad and traveling around Europe he received an invitation from General Lafayette to come to North America, with the United States being born at the time. He was actively involved in the US War of Independence (American Revolutionary War), saving George Washington from inevitable death on Sep. 11. 1777, during the Battle of Brandywine.

Casimir Pułaski (Image Credit: Wikimedia)

Kazimierz Pulaski, back in the US, became a close friend with John Cooper, one of the Scottish immigrants. Pułaski shared his fencing skills with Cooper, while the latter, following the Battle of Savannah, transported the wounded (lethally) Pole to the US Ship named “Wasp”. When Pułaski was dying, Cooper made a promise to himself: America is going to pay the debt owed to Poles, for their effort and involvement in the US struggle for independence.

Why are we mentioning the aforesaid Poles who were quite significant for the American history? Well, 150 years later the US citizens would repay the debt and show their gratitude for Poles who fiercely fought with their ancestors, in order to gain the US independence.

Polish-Soviet War – 1919-1921

Regaining the independence in 1918 was not the end of the Polish efforts to reestablish the national identity, as it was required to unify territories that had been previously separated between the powers that partitioned Poland. This created a great deal of problems, as areas that were culturally diverse, with different economies, richness and mentality, had to be brought together and fused into a coherent body. One should also mention that the WWI front moved through the now Polish territory at least twice. The parties involved killed, plundered and destroyed the economic potential available in the region. In the light of the developments above, the threat of communism emerged – the Soviet Russia wanted to expand its influence and reach the West of Europe.

Following the Russian Revolution, Lenin stated that not only was Warsaw a center of the Polish bourgeoisie, it was also a center of imperialism per se. Lenin wanted the Ploretaryat revolution to spill around the whole of Europe. After the Germans withdrew from Poland, war broke out. It ended in 1921 with a peace treaty signed in Riga, with the Poles being declared the victors. Later on the said conflict became known as the 1919-1921 Polish-Soviet War.

For Our Freedom…

A Squadron (Escadrille) of aircraft flown by the US aviators took part in the Polish-Soviet War. Merian Caldwell Cooper, who was a great grandson of John Cooper, the friend of Kazimierz Pułaski, made a promise to himself: America will reciprocate the Polish effort undertaken in the struggle for the US independence. Cooper was the person who paid the debt back. How did it happen?

American Relief Administration which worked towards mitigating the results of WWI, led by Herbert Hoover, helped the nations in their efforts to secure their borders and protect themselves from the adversity that could emerge in case of other states. Hoover, leading the ARA mission, sent Capt. Merian Cooper of the United States Air Force to besieged Lvov in 1919. Cooper, being aware of the relationship between John Cooper and Kazimierz Pułaski, and after obtaining the approval of General Tadeusz Rozwadowski (Chief of the Polish Military Mission in Paris) and the Commander in Chief – Józef Piłsudski, decided to enlist himself in the Polish Army.

Cooper (Image credit: Wikimedia)

With an approval to form an Air Force unit formed by foreign pilots, Cooper met Major Cedric Fauntleroy in Paris. He convinced Fauntleroy to join him in his effort. General Rozwadowski also issued a recommendation for two American Colleagues who, respectively, in ranks of Captain (Cooper) and Major (Fauntleroy) became members of the newly born Polish Air Force. Later on the US aviators were given a lot of freedom when it came to the recruitment process – they were trying hard to reach volunteers who would later on fight for the Polish independence. Most of the effort was done via phone and telegraphy.

Faultneroy portrait on the vertical stabilizer of the Polish Fulcrum. (Image Credit: Wojciech Mazurkiewicz)

Wearing the blue uniforms of the “Blue Army” (Haller’s Army – a Polish military contingency created in France during the latter stages of World War I; the name came from the French-issued horizon blue military uniforms worn by the soldiers), the group arrived in Warsaw travelling by train. It included: Lt. George M. Crawford, Lt. Kenneth Shrewsbury, Cpt. Edward Corsi, Lt. Edwin Noble, Cpt. Arthur Kelly and Carl Clark. The unit was also joined by two new volunteers: Lieutenants Edmund Graves and Elliott Chess. The Escadrille was commanded by Fauntleroy, with Cooper acting as his deputy. Later on, the pilots listed above were sent to Lvov to become a part of the 7th Fighter Squadron (Escadrille), with Tadeusz Kościuszko becoming its patron. As mentioned above, Kościuszko was one of the Polish national heroes who, together with Kazimierz Pułaski, were involved in the American War of Independence.

Cooper portrait worn by the contemporary Polish Fulcrum. Image Credit: Wojciech Mazurkiewicz

Eliott Chess was the person who designed the distinctive emblem of the Squadron, so-called “scythes”. The emblem features a “rogatywka” cap, which is a traditional Polish folk headwear. The background includes seven red stripes placed on a white background (six white stripes). Not a lot of people are aware of the fact that the emblem is derived from the US national flag. The whole layout is complemented by crossed scythes and thirteen stars, associated with the first 13 states of the United States of America. The “rogatywka” and scythes refer to the Kościuszko uprising, when the Poles armed with scythes made an attempt to gain freedom for the country, fighting against Russia and Prussia. The emblem was placed on the aircraft flown by the American pilots.

Coming back to the Polish-Soviet War – the 7th Escadrille also had Polish pilots. This, which also bears a certain degree of relevance, created a language barrier. The Escadrille, at the beginning of its existence utilized aircraft taken over from the nations who had partitioned the Polish territory during the preceding period, as we mentioned in the first episode of our series. The 7th Escadrille also utilized the only Polish Air Force’s Sopwith Camel, brought by Kenneth Murray, privately.

The Escadrille was acting as a liaison element, to evolve into a reconnaissance and attack unit later on. Dogfights were not a part of the operations, since the enemy did not utilize any aircraft. Between 1919 and 1920 the pilots involved were mainly delivering the orders and reports to the forward positions which eliminated the need to use teletype – here the messages could have been easily intercepted. At the time, Lt. Graves died tragically, during an air display in November 1919. He was replaced by Lt. Harman Rorison. Later on, on Apr. 25., Lt. Noble was wounded, which ends his involvement in the war. Cooper also ended his efforts, but he became a POW. He spent 9 months at a POW camp, then made a successful escape attempt and reached the Polish land. Kelly was also KIA. Crawford, on the other hand, left the unit. This rendered some serious problems for the Escadrille, suffering from pilot shortage at the time. Fauntleroy issued a message, and six new pilots joined the element as a result of his attempt to reconstruct the unit: T.V. McCallum, Thomas Garlick, John Maitland, Kenneth Murray, John Speaks and Earl Evans. McCallum is the only pilot of the group who lost his life in combat on Aug. 31. 1920.

7th Escadrille in all of its glory. Unique historic photograph featuring the American aviators next to Ansaldo A.1 Balilla (most probably wearing bort no. 6.). From the left: on the landing gear: Władysław Konopka, Kenneth M. Murray; on the ground: Jerzy Weber, Antoni Poznański, Zbigniew Orzechowski, Edward C. Corsi, George M. Crawford, John C. Speaks, Elliott W. Chess, Earl F. Evans, John I. Maitland, Aleksander Seńkowski, Thomas H. Garlick. (Image Credit: Małgorzata Punzet’s Private Collection)

Ultimately the Poles reached Kiev, to push away the Eastern invaders further away. Operationally speaking, the “Kościuszko” Escadrille was involved in flying within area between Lvov and Kiev, successfully eliminating the Semyon Budyonny’s Army from the main battle.

What is interesting, after the war the US pilots were still policing the Polish airspace, until the moment when a peace treaty was signed in Riga, on March 18th 1921. The Americans were monitoring the enforcement of the ceasefire. They were decorated with high military decorations, including Virtuti Militari, Cross of Valour, Haller’s Medal and Cross of the Polish Soldiers of America.

After the war, Meriam Caldwell Cooper returned to the United States, where he worked as a journalist. He was also a passionate traveler, visiting exotic locations all around the world. He became a film producer in Hollywood, also working on documentaries. Inspired by the lives of gorillas, Cooper wrote a screenplay and co-directed the King Kong blockbuster in 1933. Cooper starred in the film, flying an aircraft attacking the giant ape. He remained close to aviation for the rest of his life. During WWII he first served as the Chief of Staff for Gen. Clarie Chennault of the China Air Task Force, and then as the Chief of Staff of the Fifth Air Force’s Bomber Command, to become a Deputy Chief of Staff of USAAF in the Pacific operational theatre. In 1950 he became a General. He took a great pride of his relationship with Poland and the Poles, getting in touch with the RAF Squadron 303 continuing the heritage provided by the 7th Escadrille, also working together with the pilots who left Poland for the United States of America after the war. Cooper passed away in 1973.


After the war came to an end, the 7th Air Escadrille commanded by Cpt. Jerzy Weberwas transferred to the Mokotów Field in Warsaw, being incorporated in the 1st Aviation Regiment as the III Squadron. The fact that the personnel were leaving the squadron after the war led to circumstances in which major rotation of human resources could have been witnessed. The airplanes also were not what you would call “state of the art”. The Escadrille was flying the Italian Ansaldo Balilla airplanes which, due to the poor quality and defects, were referred to as the “flying coffins”. At the beginning of 1925 the aircraft were replaced with SPAD 61s. In the spring of 1925 a new number is associated to the Escadrille. Between 1925 and 1928 it is referred to as the 121st Fighter Escadrille. Another change of numbering, which is also the last one, took place on Aug. 14. 1928. In the Spring of 1933 the unit receives modern, all-metal Polish made fighter aircraft – the PZL P.7. In 1935 they also receive the PZL P.11, a new type which later on saw combat during the beginning of the WWII, in September 1939, fighting against the Nazi German invaders. By that time the Escardille had been transformed into the 111 Fighter Escadrille, which took part in the defense of Poland as a part of the Pursuit Brigade. As such the Squadron’s pilots scored several air-to-air victories, succeeding against the enemy who had technological and quantitative advantage, suffering own losses which were minor – only 3 pilots were wounded. We will be mentioning the aircraft they flew in detail in the next episode of our series, covering the Polish aviation of 1920s and 1930s.

PZL P.7 (Image Credit: San Diego Air and Space Museum Archive – Flickr/Public Domain)

Kościuszko’s Scythes during WWII

The loss of the defensive campaign of the September 1939 did not translate into the end of the war efforts made by the Poles against Germany. The Poles joined France and England and organized the Air Force on foreign land, enhancing the allied defense potential. Squadron 303 was the best known of the Polish units, formed abroad, in 1940, in Northolt. The unit proved its usability and the fighting spirit of the Polish pilots in an impressive way during the Battle of Britain. The Squadron was undoubtedly the deadliest of the Polish units. It adopted, succeeding the Squadron 303, the traditions and heritage of the 111th “Kościuszko” Escadrille.

Post-War Period

After WWII Europe was divided by the Iron Curtain. Poland, being within the zone of influence of the Soviet Union, broke off its contact with the West, while the Armed Forces, organized on the basis of the Soviet structural model, did not cultivate its pre-war heritage. As mentioned by Andrzej Rogucki, one of the Polish pilots who was flying in the Air Force of the People’s Republic of Poland as well as in a NATO setting, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union at the beginning of the 1990s, it was decided that heritage should be brought back to life, with patrons and unique names being associated with the military units.

Pilot’s social facilities at the 23rd Tactical Air Base in Minsk Mazowiecki, with the scythes placed on the wall, replicating the shape of the emblem. (Image Credit: Wojciech Mazurkiewicz)

The “Kościuszko Scythes” became associated, back in 1993, with the 1st “Warszawa” Fighter Aviation Regiment, stationed in Minsk Mazowiecki. The unit obtained an approval of the former Squadron 303 pilots, to use the emblem of the famous Polish Escadrille.

Backstage shot, depicting the process of painting the Chess’s emblem design on the back of the Fulcrum. (Image Credit: Andrzej Rogucki)

After a period of restructuring, the tradition lives on at the 23rd Tactical Aviation Base. The Kościuszko emblem is still worn by the Polish fighter aircraft – currently, the supersonic MiG-29s. One should mention the fact that the Polish Fulcrums wear portraits of the distinguished pilots of the 7. and 111. Escadrilles and the Squadron 303, this includes the founders of the “Kościuszko” Squadron – Merian C. Cooper and Cedric Fauntleroy.

Polish Fulcrum with the Scythes on its back! (Image Credit: Wojciech Mazurkiewicz)

Post Scriptum: The “Kościuszko” Badge

When speaking of the “Kościuszko” squadron, one shall also mention the badge. Here we present photos of the original badges used by one of the pilots of the unit, during the interwar period. They belonged to Antoni Poznański – who is also depicted in one of the photographs above.

Kościuszko Squadron badges worn by its pilots. The set depicted here belonged to Antoni Poznanski. (Image Credit: Małgorzata Punzet/Private Collection)

As historians argue, there’s no clear division between the badges.

Paweł Tuliński, one of the reputable authors working in the field of Polish aviation history, told us the following:

The 7th Escadrille badges were not divided into silver and gold ones, when it came to the color. They were only silver. However, some of the examples made out of brass and silver-coated have lost their coating, and they appear as if they were originally gold. This could have resulted from cleaning or oxidation.

There are two types of the 7th Escadrille badges: 1) Multi-part, two-toned badge with a silver surface and overlays (stars, scythes, cap); 2) Single part badge (One should remember that both types of badges featured a metal element with red material forming the background for the front portion of the badge). Unfortunately, no information has been obtained so far with regards to the rules ascribed to provision of the badges.

It is usually stated that the ones exhibiting better quality belonged to the officers, while privates and NCOs used the badges that looked “cheaper”.

The set that belonged to Cpt. Antoni Poznański (presented above) may be a contradiction to this. Most probably the pilot in question was in possession of two badges, one used with dress uniform, with the second one utilized for other purposes.

The officers also were buying the badges themselves. In case of privates and non-commissioned officers, the circumstances were not uniform, depending on the periods and units. Thus, almost always, the badges were delivered in “rich” and “economical” variants. And this is, in my opinion, the primary reason for the division. Despite the above, collectors like to divide the badges (without any reference point in the sources) into the ones used by the officers, NCOs and soldiers.

Badges belonging to the members of the 111th Escadrille and of the 303 Squadron – (Private Collection of Paweł Tulinski)

Written with Michał Wajnchold.

Top Image: Polish Air Force’s MiG-29 Fulcrum during the service’s 100th Anniversary photoshoot. Image Credit: Michał Wajnchold.

Poland Launches “Harpia” Programme To Procure A New Multirole Combat Aircraft

Warsaw eyes new combat aircraft to replace the Su-22 and MiG-29 jets.

According to the announcement made by the Armament Inspectorate on Nov. 23, Poland has eventually initiated the procedure to acquire new fighter aircraft for the Polish Air Force.

The new assets would be replacing the fleet of Soviet-era Su-22 Fitters and MiG-29 Fulcrums, still part of the Polish Air Force’s inventory. The Armament Inspectorate of the Polish Ministry of Defence announced that it is willing to carry out a market analysis – this is one of the first stages of the analytical-conceptual phase of procurement with regards to operational requirements.

Two Polish Air Force MiG-29s. The Fulcrum is one of the type that Warsaw will replace within the “Harpia” programme.

The interesting fact is that the requirement has been defined for a “Multi-role Combat Aircraft”, within a programme that has been given the name “Harpia” (harpy eagle), along with “Airborne Electronic Jamming Capabilities.”

It is assumed, as the Polish Media Outlet “Dziennik Zbrojny” points out, that the analytical-conceptual phase with regards to procurement of the multi-role combat aircraft may last until December 2018, nonetheless, as procurement is complicated, steps may be made to extend the aforesaid term.

When it comes to the other operational requirement, concerning the Electronic Warfare, the Armament Inspectorate of the Polish MoD expects the potential bidders to present offers related to EW pods or modules that could be potentially integrated with the fighter aircraft.

Any entity interested in participation in the aforesaid market analysis may submit their requests until Dec. 18, 2017.

Even though the market analysis has been announced, the tight procurement schedule adopted by the Polish MoD leaves little space for extra spending – as currently Poland pursues costly programs such as Orka (new generation submarine) or Wisła (medium range air/missile defense program).

The insider talk suggests that F-16V could be the possible way to go for the Polish MoD. Meanwhile, Eurofighter GmbH also launched quite intense marketing campaign in Poland with regards to Harpia this year – e.g. by sending two Eurofighter aircraft to attend the Radom Air Show static display.

Considering the generational progress and capabilities made available by the type, the Polish could also consider the F-35 Lightning II even though this does not seem to be the path the Polish Air Force intends to take. Nonetheless the procurement is still in its infancy and it is too early to try to guess what the final decision will be.

A U.S. F-35A Lightning II from Hill Air Force Base, Utah, performs for a crowd of nearly 100,000 people at Le Bourget Airport, France, during the Paris Air Show, June 23, 2017. The Paris Air Show offers the U.S. a unique opportunity to showcase their leadership in aerospace technology to an international audience. By participating, the U.S. hopes to promote standardization and interoperability of equipment with their NATO allies and international partners. This year marks the 52nd Paris Air Show and the event features more than 100 aircraft from around the world. (U.S. Air Force photo/ Tech. Sgt. Ryan Crane)

Image Credit: Wojciech Mazurkiewicz